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Citing Sources

How to cite sources in APA, MLA, and Chicago/Turabian formats

APA Citation

Selected Resources

APA In-Text Citations and Authors

This information is available in PowerPoint (you will need to view the notes pages to see all information) OR in a narrated version. Choose the format you prefer.

Check you knowledge by completing the tutorial on citations and in-text citations.  You may access the tutorial by clicking here or by selecting the item in the navigation bar at the left.

APA Journal citations

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APA Image citations

Images may be used in the following types of academic works:

  • Research paper
  • Poster
  • Presentation
  • Online

If you do not create the image, you should credit the original source.

APA requires you to describe the type of material.  Those include:

  • Photography
  • Print
  • Oil painting
  • Painting
  • Sculpture

Example citation for a painting:

  • In Text Citation
    • Sargeant's Egyptians Raising Water from the Nile  (see Figure 1) ......
  • Reference Citation (double-spaced and hanging indent required in your paper)
    • Sargent, J. S. (1890-91). Egyptians Raising Water from the Nile. [Painting]. Retrieved from


If you have additional questions about citing images, see Chapter 5 of the following book.  Both APA and MLA examples are provided:

Other types of APA citations

This information is available in PowerPoint (you will need to view the notes pages to see all information) OR in a narrated version. Choose the format you prefer.

APA Tables and Figures

The APA style manual devotes an entire chapter, Chapter 5, pages 125 - 167, on using tables and figures to display results.  Place tables as close to their reference in the text as possible.


  • Show numerical values or textual information
  • Almost always use columns and rows to display information


  • Any type of illustration other than a table
  • Chart
  • Graph
  • Photograph
  • Drawing
  • Map

Use graphical elements selectively 

  • Supplement the text with graphics -- do not duplicate the text
  • Mention the highlights from graphics in text

Use checklists provided in the APA manual

  • Table Checklist - page 150
  • Figure Checklist - page 167

Preparing tables and figures

Use Arabic numbers (page 127 of APA manual)

Number tables and figures in the order they are first mentioned in the text

Number tables and figures separately

  • Table 1
  • Table 2
  • Figure 1

If reproducing -- you must give credit to the original; may also require permission to use

Refer to Tables and Figures in your text by their number -- do not say things like "the table above" or "the table below" or even "the table on page 32" 


Every table includes four elements:

  1. Title - clear and explanatory
  2. Headings - show how you have organized your data and identify columns
  3. Columns - every column must have a heading; headings identify information below
  4. Body of the table

See pages 131-150 in the APA manual for specific table layouts and explanations of notes

*Remember, a table supplements the text.  Do not refer to each element of a table in your text.


Any type of illustration other than a table:

  • Chart
  • Graph
  • Photograph
  • Drawing
  • Map

A good figure is:

  • Simple
  • Clear
  • Informative
  • Explains symbols used in the figure
  • Placed within the figure
  • Uses same font as the rest of the figure
  • Concise explanation of the figure; brief and descriptive
  • Placed directly below the figure
  • Serves as the title of the figure

See pages 151-167 of the APA manual for examples and explanations of figures.

APA Title Pages

The first thing on your title page is the Running head.  It is flush with the left margin.  The words Running head are followed by a colon and an abbreviated title of your paper.  It must be under 50 characters.  Insert the page number on the same lin flush with the right margin.

Your title goes about halfway down the page (if your paper is set to double-space, hit the enter key about 9 times); center the title.  Add your name and school.

At the bottom of you page you may add an Author Note.  This item is optional; ask your instructor if it is required.

The examples below illustrates a title page.  In this example, the Running head: and page number are in the header (Example 2).  I have also turned on the show paragraph marks (see item marked in red; Example 1).  This allows me to count the number of lines on my paper so I know exactly where the center is.

Example 1

Menu with show/hide for paragraph marks highlighted

Example 2​Title page formatted according to information from : A Pocket Style Manual. 7th Edition. APA Version by Diana Hacker and Nancy Sommers. 

APA Page Headers

Open MS Word and select the Insert Tab.  This is where you will find your Header and Footer tools.

Insert tab with header tools highlighted

Click the drop down button next to Header and select the second item.  The second item in the drop down box should have three columns.  Each column should say [Type here].  

Header drop down box with three columns selected

Selecting this will insert the header into your document.  Your page should look something like this:

You are now ready to create the header for your first page.  Place your cursor in the first [Type here] area.  Type Running head: and the title of your paper.  Go over to the second [Type here] area and delete it.  You should now see this on your screen (yours should include the title of your paper).

Header without page numberTo insert a page number, place your cursor in the third [Type here] column.  Then click on the drop down button for Insert Page Number.  Choose Current Position.  Choose the first example.  The picture below illustrates these steps.  Check with your instructor about placing a page number on the title page as there is not consensus on this element.  The examples in APA, 6th. ed. show a number on the title page. 

Insert page number examples

You should now have the number 1 in the third [Type here] area of your header.  Your first page header should look like this.You are now ready to change the header on all other pages in your document because APA only uses the text Running head on the first page. All other pages will have only the title of your paper. First, move to the second page of your paper.

Open the Header and Footer tools (on the Insert tab).  Select the box: Different First Page.  Insert a page number.  Your second page header should look something like this:

This header will now appear on all pages in your paper, except for the first page.