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Citing Sources

How to cite sources in APA, MLA, and Chicago/Turabian formats

Formatting Tips

Hanging indent function in MS Word

The simplest and easiest way to have your citations utilize the Hanging Indent required by APA, is to use the function in MS Word that automatically formats your citation.

Step 1 

Type your citation. Here is an example:

Haybron, D. M. (2008). Philosophy and the science of subjective well-being.  In M. Eid & R. J. Larsen (Eds.), The science of subjective well-being (pp. 17-43). New York, NY: Guilford Press.

Step 2 

Highlight the citation. Right click.  Choose paragraph.

Step 3

In the paragraph dialog box (see next image). Under Special, Choose Hanging.  Set the line numbering to double. 

You're done!

If you type all of your citations single-spaced with no formatting other than italics you can select (highlight) all of your references (an entire page) and format it as one paragraph.

Table of Contents in MS Word

A table of contents lists each heading and sub-heading used in your paper.

Headings are flush left (chapter headings)

Sub-headings are indented once

Sub sub-headings are indented twice

The page number where each item can be found is flush right (on the right margin).

The attached document details how to manually create dot leader tabs (the dot leader puts the ............. in your TOC).  

You can use dot leader tabs in a manually created TOC or a TOC created using the automatic features in MS Word.

Block Quote Formatting in MS Word

A block quote is a quote of 40 or more words (see page 171 of the manual).  The sentence before the block quote must end with a colon:

  1. Type your quote.  Make certain it is a 100% accurate duplication.
  2. Add the in-text citation at the end of the quotation, including page numbers.
  3. Do not enclose the quote in "quotation marks".
  4. The long quotation that I want to include in my paper is repeated below (see #5).  First, I use MS Word to check the number of words in the quotation.   To do this, I highlight the selection, click on the Review tab, and select word count.  This quote is over 40 words so it requires a block quotation.  Here is a picture of what the dialog box looks like after word has counted the number of words for me.

  5. My quotation: To think incisively and to think for one's self is very difficult. We are prone to let our mental life become invaded by legions of half-truths, prejudices, and propaganda. At this point, I often wonder whether or not education is fulfilling its purpose. A great majority of the so-called educated people do not think logically and scientifically. Even the press, the classroom, the platform, and the pulpit in many instances do not give us objective and unbiased truths. To save man from the morass of propaganda, in my opinion, is one of the chief aims of education. Education must enable one to sift and weigh evidence, to discern the true from the false, the real from the unreal, and the facts from the fiction. The function of education, therefore, is to teach one to think intensively and to think critically. (King, 1947, para. 1-2) 
  6. If your block quotation ends with a complete sentence, the citation goes after the period.  Do not follow the in-text citation with a period (see above, the in-text citation ends with the closing parenthesis).
  7. If your block quotation does not end with a complete sentence, the citation goes before the period.
  8. Now I am ready to format the quotation in correct APA format. Again, I highlight the entire quotation, right click, and choose paragraph. The paragraph dialog pops up. Change the line spacing to double and left indent to .5. 

paragraph dialog box

9. This quotation has two paragraphs, so the formatting is not yet complete.  Highlight the last sentence and change the left indentation to 1, as show in this example.

Example illustrating indent of 2nd paragraph of quotation

10.  The block quotation is now complete.

11.  A picture of how the block quotation looks in my paper, appears below.

Block quote as viewed in a formatted paper